Reformation Of Gas: The first step embrace overhaul of natural gas, in this step hydrogen is counter with steam at 750-800 °C, by this reaction natural gas and a mixture of Hydrogen (H2) and Carbon monoxide is attained. Water Gas Shift: In this stride the Carbon monoxide is reacted with steam first at High temperature 350 °C and then at low temperature 90-210 °C to form Hydrogen and Carbon dioxide. CO + H2O CO2 + H2 Purification: This step embrace the amputation of venomous products present in Gas such as sulphur (S), and chloride (Cl) then it is further purified to remove Carbon dioxide in.
The exclusion of Carbon dioxide takes place in liquid absorption system. Then methanation takes place to remove all the residual of carbon dioxide and to get pure hydrogen Gas. (hydrogen. org) By Biomass Process Biomass a renewable organic supply, which consist of agriculture crop scum, for instance wheat straw, forest residues, special crops grown specifically for energy use, such as switch grass or willow trees; organic municipal solid waste; and animal wastes.
The hydrogen can also beprepared from biomass process although this process is not commercially available now a days. Thermal decomposition: Breaking up of Organic substance under the reaction heat and coke takes place, the partial oxidation occurs due to occurrence of oxygen in reactor. Gasification: Initially methanol and various gases are obtained in the first step, and then they are reacted with Oxygen or Steam which produces mixture containing 20% H2, 20% CO, 10% CO2, almost 5% CH4 and 45% N. This is an unbalanced equation for Gasification process,
C6H12O6 + O2 + H2O > CO + CO2 + H2 + other species. Removal of Nitrogenous Compound: In this step Nitrogenous compounds are eliminated from mixture by their reaction with the mixture with pure Oxygen or steam. Then we obtained the hydrocarbons and the endothermic reaction of hydrocarbons yield a Gas rich in Hydrogen. (Hydrogen. org) CO + H2O CO2 + H2 Exothermic and Endothermic reactions in Steam reform process: In steam reform manufacturing of hydrogen both exothermic and endothermic effect takes place.
The first reaction which is observed in system is highly endothermic reaction, in this reaction the heat is soak up by the system in order to initiate the reaction between hydrogen and carbon monoxide, the heat is endow with the system from its environment by burning overindulgence of methane. The subsequent type of reaction which is being observed in steam reform process is the exothermic reaction, it is observes during shift reaction which initiates the separation progression for removing carbon dioxide, during exothermic reaction it is observed that this reaction releases large amount of heat.
After removal of all the impurities pure hydrogen is obtained. (Leanne M. Crosbie and Dr. Douglas Chapin, January15, 2003) Exothermic and Endothermic reactions in Biomass Process: The reaction which is usually seen in Biomass process is the endothermic reaction, in first step of obtaining hydrogen from Biomass process the breaking up of organic substance for doing so the large amount of heat is provided to the system, the system absorb heats so the bonds between organic compounds starts breaking.
As in this reaction the heat is being absorb by the system to it is believed that in Biomass process of hydrogen manufacturing endothermic reaction Occurs. (Cutler. J. Cleveland, January 28, 2007).
References: Hydrogen. org, Production of hydrogen retrieved from http://www. hydrogen. org/Knowledge/w-i-energiew-eng3. html Leanne M. Crosbie and Dr. Douglas Chapin, Hydrogen production from nuclear heat retrieved from http://www. mpr. com/pdf_files/hydrogen. pdf Cutler. J. Cleveland, Hydrogen production technology, retrieved from http://www. eoearth. org/article/Hydrogen_production_technology.