The shore of Lake Michigan became the center of its economic activities and was named as Gold Coast. By 1900 Chicago became not only the nerve center of the U. S. economy but also social reforms (Longstreet, 1973). After an initial period of settlement and environmental/economic accommodation, the city entered into a remarkable phase of economic expansion between about 1850 and 1930, which is still continuous. (Miller, 1996). The first steel plant was established in late 1870s, followed by many more steel plants at the Indiana Harbor in 1900s with Gary as the chief steel-producing center.
The city main shipping terminal was established in 1956, complemented in the late 1970s by Iroquois Landing terminal. Chicago manufacturing share in US economy was 29 percent in 1990,while the service sector added 19 percent, transportation and utilities made 10 percent, and finance, insurance and real estate accounted for 13 percent of over all US economy (Spinney, 2000). Chicago remained as the most important city supplementing the US economy. In 2000, 15 percent of Chicagos manpower was employed in manufacturing sectors, compared to 14 percent nationwide, which makes Chicago matchless with any other US city.
The productivity in manufacturing has been constantly resilient since 1980s, growing by 3. 4 percent annually. In the 1990s, there was a further rise, with manufacturing productivity surpassing 4. 7 percent per year from 1996 to 1999. Chicago manufacturing offers one- fourth of the regions employment in areas such as steel, metal products, food products and confections, metal furniture, chemicals, soap, paint, machine tools, communications equipment and electronic goods, railroad equipment, surgical appliances, and scientific instruments ( Chicago world business, 2005)
Chicagos strategic location has made it the leader of the US manufacturing industries such as heavy steel machinery, metal products, material-handling equipment, and agricultural machinery. A wide variety of chemicals and allied products and petroleum refineries are located in the area. Chicago has an established printing industry offering variety of magazines and mail-order catalogs, telephone directories, encyclopedias, and trade publications. Lagos Economy
Nigerias 62 percent GNP, 40 percent of currency circulation and 45 percent of skilled labour is concentrated in Lagos alone, yet two third of the city population live below poverty line, while 70 percent depend on informal sector. Only 30 percent of the city dwellers have access to water. The city has no proper sanitation, sewerage and garbage system fore its 6000 tons of daily garbage (Octchet, 2005). Lagos deals in most of the Nigerias import trade, especially commodities, such as consumer goods, vehicles, heavy machinery, and raw materials, while exports timber and agricultural products (cacao, palm oil, peanuts etc).
Lagos owes more than 50 percent of Nigerias industrial capacity. The primary goods produced in the city include machinery, motor vehicles, electronic equipment, chemicals, beer, processed food, and textiles. consuming 45 percent of the energy (Jenks, 2000) Government The government of the Chicago city is divided into executive and legislative branches. Chicagos city government chief is a mayor who is selected for four years. He supervises 50 aldermen city council.
The mayor with City Council approval appoints members of the Board of Education, Park District, Housing Authority and other boards and commissions. The budget is (shown in table below) approved by the city council and official actions are taken through ordinances and resolutions as illustrated in table 1. 2 (Chicago Public Library, 2005). The Lagos state has been divided into 20 local government districts but elections are not held for long time due to shortage of funds. Governor is head of the state and a high government official runs the city (Lagos State Government of Nigeria, 2005)
Education Chicago has many leading institutes, such as University of Chicago, Northwestern University, Roosevelt University are well known for its respect and prestige. There are about 168 catholic schools (2000/2001) with an enrollment of 435,470 students. The city has about 7 community colleges, with enrollment rate of 76,859 (2000). The city has about 78 libraries providing books and other informative material as shown the table 1. 3 below (Chicago Public Library, 2005). In Lagos the only noteworthy educational center is Lagos University, even there conditions are miserable.