So there is presence of a tremendous language and conceptual development gap. Conceptual gap is due to new socio-cultural patterns and concepts not present in the native cultures or families of ELL. So learning is not an integrated phenomenon involving home and school but remains hanging in two separate domains i. e. family and school. This further leads to a feeling of discomfiture about their native socio-cultural patterns. This also affects their performance in the class. They are less attentive and/or on task but perform well in ESOL classes where their peers are like them and are at same level of English language proficiency.
So ELLs come from diversified backgrounds with varying and sometime paradoxical values and thoughts. Some of them accept the challenge of language barriers and develop English language proficiency successfully whereas other tends to discontinue their studies at some stage due to language barriers. A link between self-esteem and learning capability is manifested by research studies among ELL students and teachers who go-out-of-way to help their students inculcate a self-esteem in their ELL students. There is another faction of ELLS that come as temporary international students.
They are mainly study oriented students with wealthy parents. They are educated at private schools and are facilitated by private tutors as well. Mainly there are three types of ELLs: long term ELLs with several years US schooling and proficiency in social English, recent arrivals with little schooling and recent arrivals with adequate schooling. The scenario on page 30 complements the findings above about ELLs. It clearly manifests the experience of ELLs in the mainstream classroom. It symbolically represents the chief factor affecting the ELLs learning patterns and procedures.
Like TESOL students, ELLs also feel the same confusion and frustration when being taught in an incomprehensible language and their learning capability is affected. Generation 1. 5 refer to students who are in middle of two generations of immigrants. Their dilemma is unique as they identify themselves as Americans but their language capability is not upto the level of a native American. They are foreign born and spent their childhood there. They are partially education in their native country and had some schooling in United States.