2. James Hutton discovered that the earth was much older from the tilted rocks because he knew these rocks was once laid down horizontally on the sea floor and were buried under great depth to be crystalized. Then they were tilted on end by great earth forces and then eroded away. The rocks were then deposited on top. He understood it had to take millions of years for this process to happen.
3. Lord Kelvin calculated the earth to be around 20 million years old from the law of thermodynamics. 4. Arthur Holmes used radioactive particles of uranium in the attempt to accurate date the planet. He used radiometric dating which changed the concept of how old the earth is.
5. The accepted age is the Earth is 4.5 billion years.
6. The source of most water on the Earth was extraterrestrial. It was asteroids that were filled with water that crashed on the Earth that we get our water from.
7. Granite rocks started to form the continents 3.4 billion years ago
8. Granite rocks have a much lower density than basalt.
9. The stromatolites is a single cell organism that lives off sunlight and it would fill the air with oxygen making life on earth possible. 10. Alfred Weneger was a German weather scientist and proposed that the continents had been joined together.
11. It made an extrapolation of the rocks. I was hard to believe to have a larger continent be pushed through the ocean floor and his theory was considered wrong.
12. On either side of the plates in Iceland in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, it is expanding the size of the Atlantic Ocean. Also the Fisher Eruptions in Iceland mark the path of the deep plate boundary all around the island. It is also pushing America and Europe a part.
13. The rate of continental drift is 2.5cm per year.
14. The name of the first super continent formed 1 billion years ago is Rodina 15. 700 million years ago, Rodina position was blocking the currents that brought warm water from the equator to the poles. Without this heat, the polar region froze. The ice reflect the suns ray from the earth and the snowball effect occurred. 16. Beneath the ice the future continent was in turmoil. Vast volcanic eruptions split Rodina a part. 17. The fossils in the Burgess Shale indicate that 500 million years ago life exploded with staggering diversity and complexity. 18. The formation of the ozone layer lead to life because it freed life forms from the oceans. The ozone layer was a UV shield for these life forms. 19. 300 million years ago in the carboniferous period, the earth was covered with wetlands. Freshwater swamps are said to cover the earth during this time.
20. Coal came from millions of years of accumulated plant matter. It came from the way wet water lands decompose. Oil and gas came from the remains of dead microorganisms. 21. The Permian Extinction 250 million years ago that 95% of species perished was caused by mass volcanic eruptions all over the Earth. 22. The new super continent that formed after mass volcanic eruptions was called Pangea. It existed 240 million years ago. 23. A new upsurge in volcanic activity spilt a part the great super continent Pangea. 24. Diamonds are the high pressure form of carbon. They are found in the mouths of ancient volcanoes. 25. 65 million years ago, the dinosaurs vanished.
26. The finding of iridium indicates that dinosaurs became extinct from a tremendous hit from a meteor on Earth. 27. The asteroid that hit the planet and caused the mass extinction of the dinosaurs was 100 miles across. 28. Evidence the gives validity to plate tectonics found in the Alps is the Matterhorn which is made up of two continents. 29. Plates tectonics and erosion contribute the a mountain height 30. The two opposing forces that contribute to the formation of the Grand Canyon is the Colorado River and the uprising plateau. 31. The grand freezing was triggered when the overflowing volcanoes in Panama created the land bridge joined the North to South America. This altered global coastal currents. 32. Two pieces of evidence that glaciers covered the earth are: the scores of tiny parallel lines marked in bedrock and the way rocks were position in the New York area. 33. 200 million years from now, a new super continent will be formed. 34. 2 billion years from now, the atmosphere and oceans will be stripped away. Leaving earth as a bone dry barren dessert.