82% of Bahrain land is arable. Its economy is mainly oil driven. Background Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment. Those contaminants bring about instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms there in. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy such as noise, heat or energy. Just like many industrialized countries, Bahrain faces environmental challenges resulting from pollution. This paper tries examines those challenges and related impacts.
Problem statement Oil-spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries and distribution stations have damaged Bahrains coastlines, coral reefs and sea vegetation. No natural fresh water resources exist in the country. Ground water and sea water are the only sources of water for all the countrys needs. In other areas, industrial pollutants have contaminated water sources with heavy metals. Agricultural development has been neglected and limited arable land degraded. Erosion of farm land has enhanced desertification.
Those challenges need to be addressed urgently. Research Question 1. Is there pollution in Bahrain and to what extent? 2. What is the environmental impact of the said pollution? 3. How can that pollution be managed? Hypothesis 1. There is serious pollution in Bahrain which has not been well addressed. 2. Pollution has caused a lot of environmental damage in Bahrain Importance of the study Pollution is a threat to both human and natural ecosystems in Bahrain. With that in mind, there in need to identify the sources and possible strategies to minimize impacts.
Limitations of study -There is inadequate pollution monitoring stations therefore no literature. -There is poorly strengthened law and regulations to protect the environment which could be providing a framework. Literature review Bahrain is an industrialized country. Its main wheel of growth is industrial development. Industrial development as much as it is good; it has created a number of environmental pollution in the country. Three areas of the environment are mainly affected: Air, water (fresh and marine) and land.
Indicators of air pollution include sulphur dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and inhalable particles in the atmosphere. Fresh water contaminants include fresh sewage discharge from septic tanks and cesspools, deep well injection of oily water from oil fields and intrusion of sea water. Marine water contaminants include treated and untreated sewage, industrial effluents and irrigation drainage. Domestic waste water derived from residential, business and other institutions usage are land pollutants.